Glossary

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AAIE
The Association for Advancement in International Education is based in the United States, and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and research concerning developments in the field of international education and school leadership, and to advance international education through partnerships with educational institutions and international associations.
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ABS
The Australian Bureau of Statistics designs, conducts and analyses surveys, and the five yearly national Census of Population and Housing. The ABS collects and analyses data which are widely used by governments and businesses, as well as the media. The ABS also provides statistical consultancy, modelling and analysis, training and support.
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Academic Credit
Exemption from enrolment of a particular part of a course as a result of previous academic study. A student may seek exemption from enrolment of a particular part of a course by seeking academic credit for previous academic study. If the provider deems that the student has a satisfactory knowledge of the unit due to previous study or professional experience, academic credit will be awarded.
Accommodation Advisors
Accommodation advisors generally work within student support offices and advise both domestic and international students on their options for accommodation. They often also provide other useful information about how to live in Australia; how to rent an apartment/house, and their responsibilities, etc. For international students, Accommodation Officers will usually organise Homestay and other such services. They may also monitor the welfare and accommodation of students under 18 years of age.
ACER
The Australian Council for Educational Research is an independent, not-for profit research centre. It provides support to education policy makers and professional practitioners. research consultancy, assessment and reporting, and surveys. ACER is committed to creating and distributing research-based knowledge, products and services to improve learning in both formal and informal settings.
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ACIVC
The Australian Council of Independent Vocational Colleges Limited (ACIVC) is a not for profit organisation representing private education and training colleges, and organisations associated with domestic and international education and training. It is affiliated with the Western Australian Private Education and Training Industry Association (WAPETIA) and the Council of Private Higher Education Incorporated (COPHE).
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ACN
Australian Campus Network Pty Ltd is a private company delivering courses for tertiary institutions in inner city locations. ACN currently delivers Bachelor of Business degrees, a Diploma of Business Administration and Foundation Studies for La Trobe University.
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ACPET
The Australian Council for Private Education and Training is a national body representing private providers of post-compulsory education and training. It was established in 1992 as a not-for-profit company. ACPET has over 700 member organisations delivering higher education, vocational education & training, and ELICOS courses in all states and territories.
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ACU
The Australian Catholic University (ACU National) was opened on 1 January 1991 following the amalgamation of four Catholic tertiary institutions in eastern Australia - the Catholic College of Education Sydney in New South Wales, the Institute of Catholic Education in Victoria, McAuley College of Queensland, and Signadou College of Education in the Australian Capital Territory. ACU is a public university funded by the Australian Government and open to students and staff of all beliefs. ACU has six campuses in Australia and offers programs throughout Australia and overseas. ACU currently has over 10 000 students at its many campuses and close to 900 staff.
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ADFA
The Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) is a unique institution that helps develop the future leaders of the Australian Defence Force. ADFA is unusual amongst Western military officer training institutions in that it provides its military and academic programs simultaneously to the young officers of all three armed Services. Therefore, while the Academy is not a university, it seeks and encourages academic excellence from its students. The focus on academic excellence occurs in the context of a strong focus on the development of those attributes which cadets will need in order to perform effectively as junior leaders in the Australian Defence Force.
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Admissions staff
Admissions staff handle, process and assess enrolments and applications for prospective students. Such staff are also likely to handle any inquiries from external parties, although the scope of these activities will often depend on the size of the organisation, and its other divisions.
AEI
Australian Education International is part of the Australian Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). AEI liaises with all sectors of the education and training industry and all levels of government. AEI administers national legislation for financial and tuition assurance mechanisms and codes of practice such as the Education Services for Overseas Students Act (ESOS) and the Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Overseas Students (CRICOS).
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AISV
The Association of Independent Schools of Victoria Incorporated was established in 1949 to represent and promote the interests of registered non-government schools in Victoria. On behalf of the Commonwealth and State Governments AISV administers a range of specific programs for independent schools. Currently, some 200 schools are Members of AISV.
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Al-Hijra
Al-Hijra is the festival in celebration of Islamic New Year.
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All India Senior School Certificate
The All India Senior School Certificate is considered as the equivalent of Year 12 in Australia. To obtain the certificate, Indian secondary students must pass the All India Secondary School Certificate Examination (AISSCE).
Alumni
Alumni are graduated and former students of an education provider. The education provider can be known as the individual's 'alma mater'.
ANU
The Australian National University is unique among its contemporaries as the only Australian university established by an Act of Federal Parliament, in 1946. It is also one of Australia’s most research-intensive universities, with a high ratio of academic staff to students. The University campus has over 200 buildings and occupies 145 hectares adjacent to the city centre of Canberra. The University has 13,487 students, representing 94 countries and over 3, 600 staff.
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ANZSSA
The Australian and New Zealand Student Services Association is a professional association of people involved in provision of support services to students in post-secondary education in Australia and New Zealand. ANZSSA holds a regular conference and publishes a Journal, JANZSSA.
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AQF
The Australian Qualifications Framework is a policy framework defining all qualifications recognised nationally in post-compulsory education and training within Australia. The AQF comprises guidelines which define each qualification together with principles and protocols covering articulation and issuance of a qualification and Statement of Attainment.
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AQIS
The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service operates in Australian ports to protect the Australian environment against exotic pests and diseases. AIQS inspects incoming luggage, cargo, mail, animals and plants and their products and provide inspection and certification for a range of exports.
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AQTF
The Australian Quality Training Framework is the national framework that regulates quality in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) system. It includes two sets of standards: (a) Those for Registered Training Organisations (RTO) and (b) those for State and Territory registering/course accrediting bodies.
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ARC
The Australian Research Council is an independent body, established in 2001 to advance Australia’s capacity to undertake quality research that brings economic, social and cultural benefit to the Australian community. The ARC reports to the Federal Minister for Education, Science and Training.
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Assessment - competency-based
Competency based assessment (CBA) is the assessment of competencies essential to performing a task. A competency is an ability to do something well. CBA is often activity-based, and is conducted by collecting evidence of competent work performance using relevant competency standards as benchmarks. CBA also assesses a candidate's knowledge of information essential to performing a task.
Assessment levels
The Australian government assesses applications for visas, and in particular student visas, on the basis of a student's country of origin. There are five assessment levels which categorise every nation, and which define what evidence individuals from those countries will need in order to be granted a student visa. Assessment levels are calculated on the risk of visa holders breaching their visa conditions.
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Audit
An audit is a systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidence to determine whether the activities of a training organisation comply with the Australian Quality Training Framework Standards for Registered Training Organisations
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AUQA
The Australian Universities Quality Agency is an independent, not-for-profit national agency that promotes, audits, and reports on quality assurance in Australian higher education. AUQA was established in 2000. It operates independently under the direction of a Board of Directors. AUQA is owned by and receives funding from the Commonwealth, State and Territory Ministers for higher education.
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AusAID
The Australian Agency for International Development is an Australian Government agency within the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. AusAID manages the Australian Government's official overseas aid program. AusAID manages Australian Development Scholarships (ADS) which provide opportunities for people from selected developing countries to undertake post-secondary level study in Australia.
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Austrade
The Australian Trade Commission (Austrade) is the Australian Government agency that helps Australian companies win overseas business for their products and services. It offers advice, market intelligence and ongoing support to companies which are selecting, entering and developing international markets. Austrade is a statutory authority within the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and is represented in 117 locations in 58 countries, including an extensive domestic network throughout Australia.
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Benchmarks
Benchmarks are statements against which good practice can be measured. Institutions use benchmarks in the form of checklists of attributes, or statements of objectives. They can be either quantitative or qualitative, and will vary among organisations, according to the purpose they are intended to serve. An institution’s internationalisation strategy, for example, might adopt a benchmark which evaluates the initiatives and policies which encourage cross-cultural understanding.
Blue Card
A blue card is evidence that a person has been approved to working with children and young people in Queensland, Australia
Under the Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian Act (2000), people who work with children under 18 years of age in particular businesses or categories of paid or voluntary employment, must undergo screening called the Working with Children Check. A person whose application to work with children and young people is approved and issued with a 'positive notice letter' and a blue card.
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Boarding House Accommodation
Boarding house accommodation is accommodation where a private house provides food and lodging for paying guests. In Australia, many secondary schools have boarding accommodation available for pupils, often referred to as 'boarding hall accommodation'.
Bologna Protocol
The Bologna Protocol is an agreement signed by European Ministers of Education to create a common European Higher Education Area. The Bologna process started in 1998 when the education ministers of Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom signed the Sorbonne Declaration concerning the harmonisation of European higher education degree systems. The document, called the Bologna Declaration, was signed by the education ministers of 29 European countries in Bologna in June 1999.
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Bridging Programs
Bridging programs are short courses aimed to cover the gaps between a student's existing knowledge and that required by a further course of study.
British Council
The British Council provides information services and links between the United Kingdom and other countries and organisations for cultural exchange and understanding. It began in 1934 as an organisation responsible for the promotion of British culture, education, science and technology in other countries, along the lines of existing French, German and Italian cultural organisations.
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Cambridge English Language Proficiency
Cambridge English Language Proficiency is a test of English developed by the University of Cambridge, as part of a student's 'O' or 'A' level studies. Students from the UK and International schools are likely to take such exams, as well a those studying in Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore. Examples of the qualification include the Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) or the Certificate of Advanced English (CAE).
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Campus
An education facility or site of an education provider where classroom-based teaching or workplace training occurs.
Career pathways
Career pathways are the steps an individual may take in pursuing a particular vocation or career. There are multiple pathways toward any career destination, depending on the individual.
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CBIE
The Canadian Bureau for International Education is a non-government organisation comprised of colleges, universities, schools, school boards, educational organisations and businesses across Canada. CBIE engages in policy development, research, advocacy and public information. CBIE manages services for foreign students in Canada. Its focus is on education at all levels, specialised training programs, cooperative projects and public administration.
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Child Protection Legislation - by state
Child protection legislation is the laws and regulations for the protection and care of children. Each of Australia's states and territories have their own Child Protection. Where ambiguities arise in the enforcement of state or territory legislation, federal child protection legislation prevails.
Chinese New Year
An annual celebration based around the lunar calendar, Chinese New Year is celebrated every year around late January, early February by Chinese communities. It celebrates the first new moon of the New Year.
Christmas
Christmas is an annual Christian festival, on December 25, celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ. Also referred to as Xmas. It is a traditional time for gift giving.
Code of Ethics
A Codes of Ethics is a set of standards that outline the ethical guidelines professional practitioners need to follow in their work roles.
CoE
A Confirmation of Enrolment is a document issued by an education provider to intending overseas students, and must accompany their application for a student visa. It confirms the overseas student’s eligibility to enrol in the particular course of the provider.
Colombo Plan
The Colombo Plan was an initiative of Commonwealth Foreign Ministers in 1951. Its intention was to provide funding and other aid for development of countries in the South and South-East Asian Region. This included national development projects in agriculture, technology and training. Members included Japan, Singapore, Philippines, Nepal, Pakistan, Nepal, Laos, Thailand, India, Myanmar, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam, as well as Australia, United Kingdom USA, Canada, New Zealand and other Commonwealth countries. The Colombo Plan enabled students from the region to be educated in Australia, thus setting the foundations for international education in Australia.
Community Colleges
Similar to TAFE colleges in Australia, community colleges and located in the United States. They generally allow students to articulate into universities after 1-1.5 of study. They can also offer diploma level programs, so that a student may have a qualification at the end of their studies, as an alternative to articulating into university.
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Competency
Competency is the ability to perform tasks and duties to the standards expected in employment.
Compliance
Compliance means to act in accordance with certain accepted standards, such as legislation. For example, in international education, compliance with the ESOS Act means to act in accordance with its requirements and guidelines for education providers.
Conferences
A formal meeting for discussion and debate among participants who have an agreed subject. For example, an international education conference on student visas. A conference may also be an event lasting several days at which there are several talks on a particular topic. Conferences are often seen as good networking opportunities.
Council of International Students Australia (CISA)
The Council of International Students Australia (CISA) is the national peak student representative body for international students studying at the postgraduate, undergraduate, private college, TAFE, ELICOS and foundation level.
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Counselling
Counselling is a therapy in which a trained and qualified person listens to individuals' problems and helps clients resolve such issues with the focus on goal setting and problem solving. Problems and anxieties may include depression, perfectionism, culture shock, adjustment issues and anxiety.
Course
A course of education or training, usually consisting of a number of modules, subjects or units, and leading to the award of a qualification.
Course Development
The process of planning, design and review of a course by an educational institution. Course development may be conducted in collaboration with the government and government accredited bodies, such as the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF).
Course Money
Course money is money an education provider receives from an overseas student or prospective overseas student; or another person who pays the money on behalf of an overseas student or prospective overseas student for a course that the provider is offering to provide.
Credit Transfer
In the academic sense of the word, credit transfer is the granting of credit by an institution to students on the basis of previous subjects, modules or units of competency undertaken in another institution.
CRICOS
The Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Overseas Students is the register which lists all education providers that may advertise and offer courses to overseas students. An Australian educational provider must have a CRICOS registered number before they can accept or enrol international students. All programs that international students study also have a CRICOS number.
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Crisis Management
Crisis management refers to the management policies and procedures that are in place in the event of a crisis. That is, in the event of a fire, or death or injury to a student. Many institutions have a crisis management policy.
Critical Incident
A critical incident is a traumatic event, or the threat of such an event, which causes extreme stress or fear.

Cross-Cultural Communication
Communication between individuals of different cultures. Effective communication depends on the ability to approach interactions with empathy and understanding of cultural difference.
Cross-institutional study
Cross-institutional study is permitted with formal approval from education providers, so a student may complete a program provided by more than one institution. The purpose is to earn credits towards the overseas student’s enrolled program of study with the primary enrolling provider.
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Cultural Diversity Policies
Cultural diversity (or 'multicultural') policies are policies formed and implemented by a government, government group, educational institution or other organisation, with the aim of promoting multicultural harmony and appreciation of cultural diversity.
Culture
Culture is a set of accepted behaviour patterns, values, assumptions, and shared common experiences. Culture defines social structure, decision-making practices, and communication styles.
Culture Shock
The term, culture shock, was introduced for the first time in 1958 to describe the anxiety produced when a person moves to a completely new environment. This term expresses the lack of direction, the feeling of not knowing what to do or how to do things in a new environment, and not knowing what is appropriate or inappropriate.
Cunningham Library
The Australian Council for Education Research Cunningham Library holds an extensive collection of educational research documents including books, journals, education reports, conference papers and information relevant to all educational sectors.
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Currency fluctuations
The movements of different currencies on the international market against other currencies. That is, one week the Australian dollar ($AUD) may be 0.70 US dollars, while the week after $1AUD may be worth $0.75 US dollars. Such movements are relevant in regards to the fees international students pay and what currencies they use. For instance, depending on currency fluctuations, one week of fees in Australian dollars may be worth more or less in another currency.
Curriculum
Curriculum is the teaching and learning specifications for a course or part of a course. Curriculum describes the learning experiences a student undergoes, generally including objectives, content, intended learning outcomes, teaching methodology and assessment tasks.
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DEEWR
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) provides national leadership and works in collaboration with the States and Territories, industry, other agencies and the community in support of the Government’s objectives. We develop and implement policies to ensure the continuing relevance of education, science and training to contemporary needs and the growing requirement for lifelong learning. We also ensure high quality and value for money in delivering Government funded programmes.
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DFAT
The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade is responsible for maintaining Australia's position in trade, standard of living, employment and economic security. Information is generated by DFAT to assist Australian travellers and Australians overseas, and to foster public understanding of Australia. DFAT manages the Australia's overseas owned estate.
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DIAC
The Department of Immigration and Citizenship is the Australian Federal Government has responsibility for entry, stay and departure arrangements for non-citizens, including overseas students. It also oversees border immigration control, arrangements for the settlement of migrants and humanitarian entrants, other than migrant child education, citizenship, ethnic and multicultural affairs. The department manages the overseas student visa program.
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Discrimination
The term discrimination refers to the unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice. Discrimination may be either intentional or unintentional, and either explicit or implicit. Discrimination may be manifest on the basis of prejudice against: age, gender, marital status, national origin, handicap or religion.
Discrimination is also the term given to describe the process of distinguishing between one thing and another.
Distance education
Distance education describes study in which teachers and students are separated in time and/or space throughout the duration of the unit of study, but does not include study where the student is resident in their home country or another country offshore. Distance learning differs from online learning in that the study may be undertaken through written correspondence and exchange of hard copy materials.
Diversity
In the context of international education, diversity refers to noticeable heterogeneity in the education community, including staff and students. It is diversity of, but not limited to, race, religion and language.
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Diwali (Deepvali)

Diwali is a five day Hindu religious festival which celebrates the Hindu New Year. It is the most popular of festivals in South Asia and is also celebrated by Jains and Sikhs.
EA
English Australia is the representative body for English language colleges in Australia.
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EAIE
European Association for International Education is a not for profit organisation based in Europe which represents members involved in institutions and organisations Its main aim is the stimulation and facilitation of the internationalisation of higher education in Europe and around the world, and to meet the professional needs of individuals active in international education.
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Easter
Easter is a Christian commemoration of the death of Jesus Christ and his later resurrection. Usually occurs between March and April over 4 days. In many countries, 'Easter eggs' are exchanged between friends and family.
EATC
The Education Agent Training Course is an online training course specifically designed for education agents who recruit and advise students to study in Australia. It was developed by International Education Services Ltd., with the assistance of industry stakeholders, in particular AEI and DIMA as representatives of the Australian Government. The EATC sits within the Australian Qualifications Framework .
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eCOE
An Electronic Confirmation of Enrolment (eCOE) is generated through access to PRISMS. It is a document necessary to obtain a student visa, and is issued by the education provider for a student who will enrol in the institution.
Education agent
An education agent represents a registered provider to prospective overseas students in relation to marketing, promotion, and provision of services. Education providers have formal agreements with education agents, and are responsible for their professional behaviour as part of their ESOS obligations.
Education provider
An education provider is an organisation or person in Australia that provides or seeks to provide courses to overseas students.
Education related activities
Includes extracurricular activities organised, provided or promoted by an education provider – such as sporting activities, drama or music groups, social or special interest clubs.
EFTSL
An EFTSL is an equivalent full time student load for a year. It is a measure, in respect of a course of study, of the study load for a year of a student undertaking that course of study on a full time basis.
Eid ul Adha
Eid ul Adha is the Islamic Festival of Sacrifice and is a 4 day public holiday in Muslim countries. It commemorates the Propeht's willingness to sacrifice his son in accordance with God's wishes.
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Eid ul Fitr
Islamic religious festival marking the end of Ramadan - a religious observance including fasting. Prayers, feasts and family get-together are the major highlights of the celebrations.
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ELICOS
English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students have been designed for students who require English language training either before commencing formal studies in Australia, or as a stand-alone course. Full time ELICOS courses include General English, English for Academic Purposes, English for Business, English for Secondary School Preparation and English for other for specific purposes. Students can study ELICOS either on a student visa or another form of visa.




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Embassy
An embassy is a diplomatic building where ambassadors live or work. It is the official office of one country in the capital of another country. For example, the Chinese embassy in Canberra, Australia. An embassy is also an important point of contact and source of information on visas, etc for foreign nationals overseas, as well as people wishing to travel to that particular country.
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Enrolment
Enrolment is the registration of a person with an education provider for the purpose of undertaking a course or module. Enrolment is confirmed when a student has been formally accepted by a registered provider and occupies a place in a course.
Equity
In international education, equity means the fair and equal treatment of all members of the education community, including students and staff. Equity encompasses equal opportunity and benefit, and recognises that some individuals or groups in the community made need more support than others. Many educational institutions have equity initiatives.
Erasmus Mundus
It aims to enhance quality in European higher education and to promote intercultural understanding through co-operation with third countries. The programme is intended to strengthen European co-operation and international links in higher education by supporting high-quality European Masters Courses, by enabling students and visiting scholars from around the world to engage in postgraduate study at European universities, as well as by encouraging the outgoing mobility of European students and scholars towards third countries.
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ESOS Act
The provision of education and training services to overseas students in Australia is regulated by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) through the Education Services for Overseas Students Act and associated legislation. The purpose of the legislation is to protect the interests of people coming to Australia on student visas, by providing tuition and financial assurance and by ensuring a nationally consistent approach to provider registration. The legislation sets down the obligations of education providers, and includes visa-related reporting requirements.
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ESOS Assurance Fund
The ESOS Assurance Fund has been established under section 45 of the ESOS Act 2000 to protect the interests of current and intending overseas students of registered providers. It will do this by ensuring students are provided with suitable alternative courses, or have their course money refunded, if the provider cannot provide the courses for which the student has paid.
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Ethical Conduct
Ethical conduct is behaviour that is considered to adhere to ethical and moral principles. Ideas about what constitutes ethical conduct vary across cultures. Compliance with Codes of Ethics, where applicable, is often a good measure of ethical conduct.
Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism is belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group. Ethnocentrism may encompass a feeling that one's group has a lifestyle, values and patterns of adaptation better than those of other groups. This may manifest itself in hostility, violence, discrimination and aggression. Varying degrees of ethnocentrism is also thought to be a common feeling among people experiencing culture shock.
Exchange Programs
Exchange programs enable students to attend a host institution in another country for a period of study, and have the credit for this study transferred to the student's home institution. Payment of fees continues in the home institution. Formal student exchange agreements govern what study is approved, and for how long.
Exhibition
Hosted by a range of public and private organisations and education providers, exhibitions showcase programs, courses and universities for a specific nation or area. They can take place in a home country or overseas and will involve individuals from organisations and education providers talking with current or potential students about their educational interests.
Expats
Short for expatriates, expats are people who are voluntarily absent from their home country and have taken up residence abroad. 'Expat community' is also a common term used to describe the community of expatriates in a foreign country. For example, the Australian expat community in Singapore.
FEE-HELP
FEE-HELP provides a loan to eligible students, who are not Commonwealth supported, for part or all of their tuition fees for units of study undertaken with an approved education provider. Students can borrow up to the limit of the tuition fee charged by their provider for the unit of study. Students repay their loan through the Australian Tax Office (ATO) once their income is above the minimum threshold for compulsory repayment.
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Festivals
A festival (or fest), is a celebratory event which centres on a particular theme or particular aspect of the community. Many festivals are religious in nature. Other festivals may be held in celebration of films, art, food, culture, or groups of people.
FFPOS
Full Fee-Paying Overseas Students. An international student that pays the full price of a degree program.
Foundation Studies
Bridging or pathway programs that students undertake before entering undergraduate studies.
Free Trade Agreements
A Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is a contractual agreement between two or more parties under which they give each other preferential market access to goods and services. Australia’s FTAs apply to most trade in goods between the two parties and also cover trade in services, as well as other non-tariff issues such as the recognition of standards, customs cooperation, protection of intellectual property rights and regulation of foreign investment.



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Fulbright Scholarships
The Fulbright Program, the United States government's program in international educational exchange. Fulbright grants are made to US. Citizens and nationals of other countries for a variety of educational activities, primarily university lecturing, advanced research, graduate study and teaching in elementary and secondary schools. Since the program’s inception in 1945, more than 250,000 participants --chosen for their leadership potential-- have had the opportunity to observe each other’s political, economic and cultural institutions.
GAMSAT
The Graduate Australian Medical Schools Admissions Test has been developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research in conjunction with the Consortium of Graduate Medical Schools to assist in the selection of students intending to participate in graduate-entry medical programs.
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GATS
The General Agreement on Trade in Services came into force in January 1995. It is a set of multilateral rules covering international trade in services. It has been negotiated by National Governments, and it sets the framework within which firms and individuals can operate. The GATS has two parts: the framework agreement containing the general rules and disciplines; and the national “schedules” which list individual countries' specific commitments on access to their domestic markets by foreign suppliers.


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Go8
The Group of Eight represents 8 of Australia's leading universities, incorporated to ensure that Australia continues to have universities of a world-class standard. Membership of the group consists of the vice-chancellors (presidents) of: The University of Adelaide, The Australian National University, The University of Melbourne, Monash University, The University of New South Wales, The University of Queensland, The University of Sydney and The University of Western Australia.
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Goldring Report
Published in 1984, the Goldring Report by the Australian Government was a report of the committee of review of private overseas student policy. The Committee recognised the importance of access and equity in education and suggested that overseas student might contribute 30%-40% of tuition cost, The report argued against a ‘marketing’ approach for ‘just one of several categories of students within the system, without applying the approach to all categories.
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Grievance Procedures
Formal policies and procedures in place to deal with staff or student complaints within and outside an organisation. All education providers must communicate their grievance procedures to overseas student as part of their obligations under the ESOS Act.
Guardianship
Guardianship refers to the arrangements which must be in place to monitor welfare and accommodation for overseas students under the age of 18 years. Overseas students under 18 years of age must have their accommodation formally approved by their education providers and must have an appointed guardian until they turn 18. A guardian may be a blood relative or an individual appointed or approved by the education provider.
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Guardianship visa
A visa issued to a blood relative of a student under 18 by the Australian government. The visa allows the individual, who must have been appointed as the guardian of the under age student, the ability to enter and live in Australia for the length of time the student is under 18.
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Hajj
Hajj consists of the performance of a set of devotional rites in and around Mecca (i.e., in Mina, Arafat, and Muzdalifah) in a prescribed order. The rites of Umra form an integral part of Hajj. There are three different types of Hajj a pilgrim may perform. All of them involve the performance of essentially the same rites and acts of worship. The difference consists basically in the niyyah pronounced by the pilgrim at Meeqat. The specifics of the Hajj then follow directly from this niyyah.
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Halal
In general every food is considered lawful in Islam unless it is specifically prohibited by the Qu'ran or the Hadith. By official definition, Halal foods are those that are (1) free from any component that Muslims are prohibited from consuming according to Islamic law; (2) processed, made, produced, manufactured and/or stored using utensils, equipment and/or machinery that has been cleansed according to Islamic law; and, (3) free from contamination while prepared or processed with anything considered Najis (filthy).
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Hanukkah (Chanukah)
The Jewish 'Festival of Lights'. Hanukkah translates as rededication, and commemorates Jews' struggle for religious freedom.
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Harassment
Harassment (often referred to as "bullying") is any behaviour that causes an individual substantial emotional distress and harm, and which serves no purpose. Harassment may be: (1) physical- hitting, etc; (2) verbal- racial slurs, teasing, spreading rumours; (3) visual- offensive notes, drawings, photographs, etc; (4) intimidating - gang behaviour, psychological intimidation; and/or (5) exclusionary- ostracism, etc.
HECS-HELP
Higher Education Contribution Scheme is a user-pays system of payment where domestic students can pay their tuition after graduation.
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HEFCE
The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) distributes public money for teaching and research to universities and colleges. In doing so, it aims to promote high quality education and research. The Council also plays a key role in ensuring accountability and promoting good practice.
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High Commission
The embassy of one country of the British Commonwealth of Nations in another Commonwealth country. In the Commonwealth realm, a High Commission takes the place of an embassy.
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Higher Education
Higher education (often referred to as 'post-secondary' or 'tertiary' education) is education provided by a university or other recognised higher education provider, leading to the award of a degree or higher level qualification. In Australia, higher education providers are predominantly universities. Unlike the US where colleges are higher education institutions, colleges in Australia are largely secondary or VTE education providers.

The Australian Federal Government defines a higher education provider as "...a body corporate that is approved under the Higher Education Support Act (HESA) 2003". The Act stipulates what defines a higher education provider; how bodies are approved as such providers; and, when an institution becomes or ceases to be a higher education provider.
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Higher Education Qualification
Higher education qualifications are those which are approved under the Australian Qualifications Framework. They include Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Associate Diploma, Associate Degree, Bachelor Degree, Graduate Certificate, Graduate Diploma, Masters Degree and Doctoral Degree.
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Higher Education Wages
Abbreviated as 'HEW', Higher Education Wages are the award wages and salaries paid to academic and relevant staff in the higher education industry. They are set down in federal workplace relations legislation. Higher education wages are set out in levels from 1 to 10, for example, HEW 1.
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Holi
Also known as the 'Festival of Colours', Holi is the Hindu religious festival celebrating Spring and new life.
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Homestay
Homestay is accommodation in a private home. It is the preferred form of accommodation for younger overseas students, and those wishing to become familiar with Australian family life. Most education providers have guidelines and policies about selection and monitoring of their homestay carers.
Honours Degree
Honours degrees are completed in the same discipline as the undergraduate degree, and require an additional year of study after completion of a 3 year Bachelor degree. It can also be awarded on the basis of academic achievement in degrees of four or more years, such as the Bachelor of Law and the Bachelor of Engineering. Completion of an Honours degree is denoted by the appearance of "(Hons)" after the degree abbreviation.
Hostel Accommodation
Accommodation providing low-cost food and lodging for a specific group of people, mostly young people. Hostel accommodation providers for youths are often referred to as 'backpackers', 'youth hostels' or 'YHAs'. There are over 140 YHAs in Australia.
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IAP
An Introductory Academic Program is a preparation program designed for international students who are proposing to take up on-campus undergraduate or postgraduate studies. The Introductory Academic Program is offered by a number of universities. Its overall aim is to facilitate transition for students from a variety of educational and cultural backgrounds into the university culture. There are no credit points awarded for this program. The IAP is compulsory for AusAID sponsored students.
IB
International Baccalaureate is an educational program is recognised internationally as the final year of secondary schooling. Many schools offer IB as an option to their final year students. The IB is a comprehensive two year curriculum that has external examinations. The IB is taught in over 110 countries.
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IBTs
Institutes of Business and Technology are privately owned colleges that offer preparatory courses to assist students in pathways to university. The IBT Education Group offers pre-university foundation programs, university level diplomas and Master preparation programs for students in Australia and a number of other countries.
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IDP Education Australia
IDP Education Australia Limited (IDP) is a global organisation which is owned by 38 Australian universities, and represents all education sectors. IDP is an independent not-for-profit
IDP operates in 69 locations with activities in 31 countries. It is owned by 38 universities in Australia and represents all education sectors. IDP is an independent not for profit organisation, operating recruitment activities for its member institutions.


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IEAA
The International Education Association of Australia (IEAA) is an association of international education professionals. It is an Australian based association and includes individuals in all education sectors and at all levels, in institutions, in government and elsewhere, who are active or interested in international education.
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IELTS
The International English Language Testing System is an internationally owned and globally recognised English language assessment available throughout the world. IELTS is jointly managed by University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations (Cambridge ESOL), British Council and IDP Education Australia: IELTS Australia. International students take this test to assess their English language ability in order to apply for university or college.
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Inbound students
Inbound students are those from institutions abroad participating in study abroad or exchange programs in Australia.
Industry Seminars
Industry Seminars are small meetings or courses held for people in the international education industry. A seminar may be a meeting for the exchange of ideas and opinions, or, a course offered for a small group of individuals with substantial knowledge of and/or experience in the international education industry.
Industry Skills Councils
Industry Skills Councils are industry advisory bodies which have responsibility for the development of Vocational Training Packages. They provide industry intelligence to the Vocational Education and Training sector about current and future skill needs and training requirements.




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Inoculation
Inoculation (also referred to as 'immunisation' and 'vaccination') is a method of disease prevention whereby a vaccine is administered to a person to develop resistance to a particular disease. The vaccine is a weak form of a disease and does not result in contraction of that disease.
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Intermission
Intermission is the period of allowable leave of absence during an overseas student's course of study. Intermission is approved by the education provider and must be reported on PRISMS. Students with exceptional circumstances or compassionate reasons may apply for intermission.
International Education
International education is a term used by educators around the world to describe educational and cultural exchange, student and staff mobility and sharing of research interests and programs delivered internationally.
International Student Advisors
International Student Advisors provide advice services and programs to ensure the well-being, cultural and academic adjustment of international students. Responsibilities include: individual assistance to students with enquiries and issues relating to study and living in a new country; program and project development; assistance to students in the interpretation of regulations; and, student advocacy within a regulatory environment. They liaise with key staff and services within the institution, and with external bodies.
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Internationalisation
Internationalisation is the process of developing programs, curriculum and services which increase student and staff mobility, the relevance of education across national borders, and awareness, in an educational context, of global issues. Many institutions have developed internationalisation initiatives which include the delivery of offshore programs and recruitment of overseas students as part of their strategic plans.
Internationalised Curriculum
Internationalised curriculum is curriculum that is representative of global perspectives and international issues. It is culturally inclusive and balanced, meaning that it is not limited to any particular region. Its instruction draws on the knowledge base of students, particularly where international students are involved.
ISANA
ISANA is the representative body for international education professionals in Australia and New Zealand who work in student services, advocacy, teaching, and policy development. ISANA was established in 1989 in response to the support needs of the growing number of international students enrolling at Australian universities, schools and colleges. ISANA has been closely involved in contributing content and advice for the PIER courses.
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ISEP
The International Student Exchange Program is the program based in Washington DC which places and receives students in institutions abroad.
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ISLPR
The International Second Language Proficiency Rating is a scale that describes the development of second or foreign language proficiency in adolescent and adult learners. It is a set of four subscales for the macroskills of speaking, listening, reading and writing. The ISLPR is used for three broad purposes: (1) assessing the proficiency of individual second language learners; (2) research and policy-making in the fields of language and language education; and (3) providing a framework for language curriculum development.
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ISQ
The Independent Schools Queensland provides services for accredited non-government schools in Queensland, Australia. There are currently 170 independent schools in Queensland that are members of AISQ, with a total of 87,420 students. This figure includes 3 non-systemic Catholic Colleges.
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Ivy League
The Ivy League is the term given to the group of long-established universities and colleges in the north-eastern United States that have a reputation for academic achievement and social prestige. The Ivy League comprises the following eight colleges and universities: Brown (Rhode Island), Columbia (New York), Cornell (New York), Dartmouth (New Hampshire), Harvard (Massachusetts), Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania), Princeton (New Jersey), and Yale (Connecticut). The Ivy League was originally founded on the idea of playing American football against each other in the 1940's.
Jackson Report
The Jackson Report, published in 1984, examined the Australian Government's aid commitments in terms of education for students in developing countries. It recognised an increasing demand for education in Eastern Asia, and recommended that the money current overseas students paid should gradually be increased to full-cost levels.
Knowledge Village
Knowledge Village (KV) was established to develop Dubai into a destination for education for both regional and international learners. This new education and training hub was also set up to complement the Free Zone's other two clusters: Dubai Internet City and Dubai media City by providing the facilities to train the clusters' future knowledge workers. Dubai Knowledge Village provides the infrastructure for developing, sharing and applying knowledge. In addition, Dubai Knowledge Village has expanded to include the mega-campus Dubai Knowledge Universities, the first stage of which will be completed in 2006.
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Kosher
The term “Kosher” means “proper” or “fit”. Kosher laws are based on principles found in the Bible, with elucidation in Rabbinic literature such as the Talmud and the Code of Jewish Law. All foods and their components and derivatives are divided into 4 categories - meat, dairy, parve (neutral) and non-diary.
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Legislation
Acts of Parliament passed by a Government dictating a nation's laws and regulations. In Australia, legislation is derived from Federal, State and Territory governments. In international education, relevant legislation includes the ESOS Act 2000 (Cth), relevant State and Territory laws regarding education, children and guardianship, etc.
Licensing Arrangements
Licensing arrangements are detailed legal documents giving permission to do something, such as delivering a program. They are legally binding arrangements which, in international education, specify particulars such as delivery mode, branding, use of intellectual property, and so on.
Market Trends
Market trends are the patterns and factors that indicate the state of the market, as well as the market's future direction. The term 'market' refers to demand for international education. Market trends may also be specific to 'niche